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FINLANDIn Finland, vocational education belongs to secondary education. After the nine-year comprehensive school, almost all students choose to go to either a lukio (high school), which is an institution preparing students for tertiary education, or to a vocational school. Both forms of secondary education last three years, and give a formal qualification to enter university or ammattikorkeakoulu, i.e. Finnish polytechnics. In certain fields (e.g. the police school, air traffic control personnel training), the entrance requirements of vocational schools include completion of the lukio, thus causing the students to complete their secondary education twice.
The education in vocational school is free, and the students from low-income families are eligible for a state student grant. The curriculum is primarily vocational, and the academic part of the curriculum is adapted to the needs of a given course. The vocational schools are mostly maintained by municipalities.
After completing secondary education, one can enter higher vocational schools (ammattikorkeakoulu, or AMK) or universities. It is also possible for a student to choose both lukio and vocational schooling. The education in such cases last usually from 3 to 4 years.
GERMAN LANGUAGE AREASVocational education is an important part of the education systems in Austria, Germany, Liechtenstein and Switzerland (including the French and the Italian speaking parts of the country) and one element of the German model. For example, in Germany a law (the Berufsausbildungsgesetz) was passed in 1969 which regulated and unified the vocational training system and codified the shared responsibility of the state, the unions, associations and chambers of trade and industry.
The system is very popular in modern Germany: in 2001, two thirds of young people aged under 22 began an apprenticeship, and 78% of them completed it, meaning that approximately 51% of all young people under 22 have completed an apprenticeship. One in three companies offered apprenticeships in 2003; in 2004 the government signed a pledge with industrial unions that all companies except very small ones must take on apprentices.
The vocational education systems in the other German speaking countries are very similar to the German system and a vocational qualification from one country is generally also recognized in the other states within this area.
HONG KONGIn Hong Kong, vocational education is usually for post-secondary 3, 5 and 7 students. The Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE) provides training in nine different vocational fields, namely: Applied Science; Business Administration; Child Education and Community Services; Construction; Design; Printing, Textiles and Clothing; Hotel, Service and Tourism Studies; Information Technology; Electrical and Electronic Engineering; and Mechanical, Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering.
HUNGARYNormally at the end of elementary school (at age 14) students are directed to one of three types of upper secondary education: one academic track (gymnasium) and two vocational tracks. Vocational secondary schools (szakközépiskola) provide four years of general education and also prepare students for the maturata. These schools combine general education with some specific subjects, referred to as pre-vocational education and career orientation. At that point many students enrol in a post-secondary VET programme often at the same institution, to obtain a vocational qualification, although they may also seek entry to tertiary education.
Vocational training schools (szakiskola) initially provide two years of general education, combined with some pre-vocational education and career orientation, they then choose an occupation, and then receive two or three years of vocational education and training focusing on that occupation – such as bricklayer. Students do not obtain the maturata but a vocational qualification at the end of a successfully completed programme. Demand for vocational training schools, both from the labour market and among students, has declined while it has increased for upper secondary schools delivering the maturata.
INDIAVocational training in India is provided on a full-time as well as part-time basis. Full-time programs are generally offered through Community Colleges and Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs). The nodal agency for grant the recognition to the I.T.I.s is NCVT which is under the Ministry of Labour, Government of India. Part-time programs are offered through state technical education boards or universities who also offer full-time courses. Vocational training has been successful in India in Industrial Training Institutes in engineering trades only.
There are many private institutes in India which offer courses in vocational training and finishing, but most of them have not been recognized by the Government. All the State Governments runs vocational schools. In kerala state 389 vocational schools are there with 42 different courses. Commerce and Business, Tourism, Agriculture, Automobile, Air conditioning, Live stock management, Lab Technician are some prominent courses.
There is an urgent need that the selected Universities in India offer Certificate / Diploma / Advanced Diploma courses in different areas of specialisation for employment generation and entrepreneurship development. The salient feature of the University based courses is that these are fully recognised and the students passing out are preferred for Private as well as Government jobs. The World Institution Building Programme have offered around 1800 Vocational and Employment Centric courses under the auspices of its National Community College Project for Skill Development.
JAPANJapanese vocational schools are known as senmon gakkō. They are part of Japan's higher education system. They are two year schools that many students study at after finishing high school (although it is not always required that students graduate from high school). Some have a wide range of majors, others only a few majors. Some examples are computer technology, fashion and English.
KOREAVocational high schools offer programmes in five fields: agriculture, technology / engineering, commerce/business, maritime/fishery, and home economics. In principle, all students in the first year of high school (10th grade) follow a common national curriculum, In the second and third years (11th and 12th grades) students are offered courses relevant to their specialisation.
In some programmes, students may participate in workplace training through co-operation between schools and local employers. The government is now piloting Vocational Meister Schools in which workplace training is an important part of the programme. Around half of all vocational high schools are private. Private and public schools operate according to similar rules; for example, they charge the same fees for high school education, with an exemption for poorer families.
The number of students in vocational high schools has decreased, from about half of students in 1995 down to about one-quarter today. To make vocational high schools more attractive, in April 2007 the Korean government changed the name of vocational high schools into professional high schools. With the change of the name the government also facilitated the entry of vocational high school graduates to colleges and universities.
Most vocational high school students continue into tertiary education; in 2007 43% transferred to junior colleges and 25% to university. At tertiary level, vocational education and training is provided in junior colleges (two- and three-year programmes) and at polytechnic colleges. Education at junior colleges and in two-year programmes in polytechnic colleges leads to an Industrial Associate degree. Polytechnics also provide one-year programmes for craftsmen and master craftsmen and short programmes for employed workers.
The requirements for admission to these institutions are in principle the same as those in the rest of tertiary sector (on the basis of the College Scholastic Aptitude Test) but candidates with vocational qualifications are given priority in the admission process. Junior colleges have expanded rapidly in response to demand and in 2006 enrolled around 27% of all tertiary students.
95% of junior college students are in private institutions. Fees charged by private colleges are approximately twice those of public institutions. Polytechnic colleges are state-run institutions under the responsibility of the Ministry of Labour; government funding keeps student fees much lower than those charged by other tertiary institutions. Around 5% of students are enrolled in polytechnic colleges.
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